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TWiki.TextFormattingRulesr1.21 - 30 Aug 2001 - 10:06 - MikeMannix?topic end

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It is easy to collaborate; just type your text. You don't need to know HTML at all, though you can use it if you prefer. Links to topics will be created automatically, as long as you follow these simple Text Formatting Rules. TextFormattingFAQ has answers to frequently asked questions about text formatting. This page is available in a pop-up window when in Edit mode.

Links

Being able to create links without any formating required is a core TWiki feature, made possible using WikiNames. With the latest version of TWiki linking rules, by adding a few extra symbols, you can have even more powerful linking control.

TWiki Internal Links

  • GoodStyle is a WikiWord that links to the GoodStyle topic located in the current TWiki web.
  • NotExistingYet? is a topic waiting to be written. You could create that topic by clicking on the question mark. (Do not create that topic; you would wreck this example!)

Remote Site Links

  • http://..., https://..., ftp://... and mailto:...@... are linked automatically.
  • Email addresses like name@domain.com are linked automatically.

Editing

Formatting Command: Example: You write: You get:
Paragraphs:
Blank lines will create new paragraphs.
1st paragraph

2nd paragraph
1st paragraph

2nd paragraph

Headings:
At least three dashes at the beginning of a line, followed by plus signs and the heading text. One plus creates a level 1 heading (most important), two pluses a level 2 heading; the maximum is level 6. Note: A Table of Content can be created automatically with the %TOC% variable, see TWikiVariables.
---++ Sushi

---+++ Maguro

Sushi

Maguro

Bold Text:
Words get bold by enclosing them in * asterisks.
*Bold*
Bold
Italic Text:
Words get italic by enclosing them in _ underscores.
_Italic_
Italic
Bold Italic:
Words get _bold italic by enclosing them in _ double-underscores.
__Bold italic__
Bold italic
Fixed Font:
Words get shown in fixed font by enclosing them in = equal signs.
=Fixed font=
Fixed font
Bold Fixed Font:
Words get shown in bold fixed font by enclosing them in double equal signs.
==Bold fixed==
Bold fixed
Note: Make sure to "stick" the * _ = == signs to the words, e.g. take away spaces.
_This works_,
_this not _
This works, _this not _
Verbatim Mode:
Surround code excerpts and other formatted text with <verbatim> and </verbatim> tags.
Note: Use <pre> and </pre> tags instead if you want that HTML code is interpreted.
Note: Each tag must be on a line by itself.
<verbatim>
class CatAnimal {
  void purr() {
    <code here>
  }
}
</verbatim>
class CatAnimal {
  void purr() {
    <code here>
  }
}
Separator:
At least three dashes at the beginning of a line.
-------

List Item:
Three spaces and an asterisk.
   * bullet item
  • bullet item
Nested List Item:
Six, nine, ... spaces and an asterisk.
      * nested stuff
    • nested stuff
Ordered List:
Three spaces and a number.
   1 Sushi
   1 Dim Sum
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
Definition List:
Three spaces, the term, a colon, a space, followed by the definition.
Note: Terms with spaces are not supported. In case you do have a term with more then one word, separate the words with dashes or with the &nbsp; non-breaking-space entity.
   Sushi: Japan
   Dim&nbsp;Sum: S.F.
Sushi
Japan
Dim Sum
S.F.
Table:
Optional spaces followed by the cells enclosed in vertical bars.
Note: | *bold* | cells are rendered as table headers.
Note: |   spaced   | cells are rendered center aligned.
Note: |     spaced | cells are rendered right aligned.
Note: | 2 colspan || cells are rendered as multi-span columns.
Note: In case you have a long row and you want it to be more readable when you edit the table you can split the row into lines that end with a '\' backslash character.
| *L* | *C* | *R* |
| A2 |  2  |  2 |
| A3 |  3  |  3 |
| multi span |||
| A4 \  | next \  | next |
L C R
A2 2 2
A3 3 3
multi span
A4 next next
WikiWord Links:
CapitalizedWordsStuckTogether (or WikiWords) will produce a link automatically.
Note: In case you want to link to a topic in a different TWiki web write Webname.TopicName.
WebNotify

Know.ReadmeFirst
WebNotify

ReadmeFirst?

Forced Links:
You can create a forced internal link by enclosing words in double square brackets.
Note: Text within the brackets may contain optional spaces; the topic name is formed by capitalizing the initial letter and by removing the spaces; i.e. [[text formatting FAQ]] links to topic TextFormattingFAQ. You can also refer to a different web and use anchors.
[[wiki syntax]]

[[Main.TWiki users]]
wiki syntax

Main.TWiki users

Specific Links:
Create a link where you can specify the link text and the link reference separately, using nested square brackets like [[reference][text]]. Internal link references (i.e. WikiSyntax) and external link references (i.e. http://TWiki.org/) are supported. The same Forced Links rules apply for internal link references. Anchor names can be added as well, like [[WebHome#MyAnchor][go home]] and [[http://www.yahoo.com/#somewhere][Yahoo!]].
[[WikiSyntax][syntax]]

[[http://gnu.org][GNU]]
syntax

GNU

Anchors:
You can define a link reference inside a TWiki topic (called an anchor name) and link to that. To define an anchor write #AnchorName at the beginning of a line. The anchor name must be a WikiWord. To link to an anchor name use the [[MyTopic#MyAnchor]] syntax. You can omit the topic name if you want to link within the same topic.
[[WebHome#NotThere]]

[[#MyAnchor][Jump]]

#MyAnchor To here
WebHome#NotThere

Jump

To here

Prevent a Link:
Prevent a WikiWord from being linked by prepending it with the <nop> tag.
<nop>SunOS
SunOS

Using HTML

Most HTML tags will work, but it's almost always preferable not to use HTML, so that the markup remains easy for everyone to edit.

TWiki Variables

Variables are names that are enclosed in percent signs; they get expanded on the fly.

  • %TOC% : The table of content, is based on headings in a topic.
  • %WEB% : The current web, is TWiki .
  • %TOPIC% : The current topic name, is TextFormattingRules .
  • %ATTACHURL% : The attachment URL of the current topic. Example usage: If you attach a file to a topic you can refer to it as %ATTACHURL%/image.gif to show the URL of the file or the image in your text.
  • %INCLUDE{"SomeTopic"}% : Server side include, includes another topic. The current TWiki web is the default web. Example: %INCLUDE{"TWiki.TWikiWebsTable"}%
  • There are many more variables, see TWikiVariables.

"Gotchas" when Editing Text

The formatting rules are fairly simple to use and fast to type. However, there are some things to watch out for:

  • Q: Text enclosed in angle brackets like <filename> is not displayed. How can I show it as it is?
    • A: The '<' and '>' characters have a special meaning in HTML, they define HTML tags. You need to escape them, so write '&lt;' instead of '<', and '&gt;' instead of '>'.
      Example: Type 'prog &lt;filename&gt;' to get 'prog <filename>'.

  • Q: Why is the '&' character sometimes not displayed?
    • A: The '&' character has a special meaning in HTML, it starts a so called character entity, i.e. '&copy;' is the © copyright character. You need to escape '&' to see it as it is, so write '&amp;' instead of '&'.
      Example: Type 'This &amp; that' to get 'This & that'.

TWiki Plugins

Plugins offer additional text formatting rules and extend the functionality of TWiki. Currently enabled plugins are:

  • DefaultPlugin: This plugin can be used to specify some simple custom rendering rules. It also renders depreciated *_text_* as bold italic text.
  • SpreadSheetPlugin: Add spreadsheet calculation like "$SUM( $ABOVE() )" to tables located in TWiki topics.
  • CommentPlugin: Allows users to quickly post comments to a page without an edit/preview/save cycle.
  • EditTablePlugin: Edit TWiki tables using edit fields, date pickers and drop down boxes
  • InterwikiPlugin: Link ExternalSite:Page text to external sites based on aliases defined in the InterWikis topic
  • RenderListPlugin: Render bullet lists in a variety of formats
  • SlideShowPlugin: Create web based presentations based on topics with headings.
  • SmiliesPlugin: Render smilies as icons, like  :-) for smile or  :cool: for cool!
  • TablePlugin: Control attributes of tables and sorting of table columns

Learn more about plugins in TWikiPlugins and TWikiPreferences.
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